In patients with mild cognitive impairment, all of the following may predict a higher risk of progression to Alzheimer’s disease except:
A. Medial temporal lobe atrophy on MRI scans
B. Hypometabolism on FDG-PET scans
C. Apolipoprotein E4 genotype
D. Low CSF levels of total tau and phosphorylated tau
E. Increased activity on amyloid PET Scaner
There has been a great deal of investigations recently into the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. Some clinical predictors include severity of cognitive impairment. Imaging findings that tend to predict faster progression include medial temporal lobe atrophy on MRI, a hypometabolic pattern on FDG-PET consistent with Alzheimer’s disease, and higher levels of activity on amyloid and tau PET scans. Carriers of the apolipoprotein E4 allele are more likely to progress more rapidly as well. CSF biomarkers consistent with Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, particularly low levels of amyloid beta-42 and high levels of both total and phosphorylated tau, may also predict a more rapid progression.
* Mild Cognitive Impairment. Petersen RC. CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology. 2016;22(2):404-418.